Tower locating in Pisa city at southern part of Italy is famous for its inclination and becomes symbol of the city. Pisa Tower has an interesting story, which was known by many people in the world and visited by millions of people everyday. You may read in the continued part the story of Pisa Tower, which is told for years.
History of Pisa Tower
It was decided by high rank individuals of the church at the second part of 12th century to build 3 monuments at Miracolli Square, which represent glories, power of city. The biggest of such buildings was Duomo Cathedral, the other one was Baptistery and the last is Bell Tower. Even though length of Bell Tower started building on August 9, 1173 was 54 m., its architect contemplated it to rise 100 m more. Therefore wall thickness of foundation in spiral form made of broken stone and mortar of 700m³ amounted to 3.57 m. Tower was constructed by the primary use of limestones and marble.
First floor of the Tower was constructed with walls called as blind arch and columns of classical heads. As soon as construction arose at third floors in 1178, the tower started slowly sinking into itself. It was set forth that this was caused by foundation of 3 meters consisted of poor, thin sand, clay and sea shells. Furthermore, alluvial soil of Pisa city that was constructed over lagoon where two rivers met constituted a poor ground for architectural buildings. This sets forth the truth that this design had been defective since its construction stage.
War Period and Having a Break to Tower Construction
Nearly one year of interruption was made to construct tower thanks to wars at the city. Pisa residents were permanently obliged to make war with Lucca, Genoa and Florence residents and failed to concern with tower. Underground soil gained time for solidly falling in place due to interruption. It was considered that tower would great extend fall down in case of soil failed to fall in place. To third floor of the construction that was still under construction in 1198, watches had been temporarily fitted. In 1272, Giovanni di Simone, architect of Camposanto continued tower construction from the point it was left.
Job firstly started to balance inclination of tower. Floor slabs of one side at higher floors were designed to be higher than other side. It was not finalized so even under this circumstance and it caused tower to decline toward other side. It was recognized in 1278 that tower inclined 1 degree toward south when it raised to seventh floor. Later, tower construction was reinterrupted due to Meloria War broke out in 1284. After war in 1319, seventh floor of the tower was completed. Bell room was not enclosed to the building until 1372 even though tower was completed. After a while, Gothic components were successfully combined with Romanesque style by Tommaso di Andrea Pisano and bell tower was constructed.
New extensions were made for balancing the inclination of Pisa Tower construction of which was considered by everybody as completed. For balancing the inclination towards south, 6 steps were inserted from seventh cornice, 4 steps to its north part. Totally 7 bells were installed at bell room so that each of them corresponds to one point. With 8 floors elongating to nearly 55 meters, Pisa Tower had been completed at the end of 1372.
Short Information about Pisa Tower
- Pisa Tower locates at Pisa city of Toskana Region in Italy.
- Length of building with 8 floors is 55 meters and 16 meters in diameter.
- Tower construction started in 1174 and interrupted due to wars and it was completed within totally 198 years.
- Its inclination increased for land subsidence after fully completion of tower construction, which started inclining since it began.
- Length of tower inclination is 4 meter 41 cms.
- Pisa Tower is one of the most visited tourism building and it is included with the list of world heritage.
- There are beliefs that Pisa Tower started construction for bell tower of a church.
- There are 15 columns at the first floor; 30 columns at the subsequent 6 floors, each floor of which rises on columns. And at the 8th floor, 12 columns were used.
- Walls of first floor at the tower is 4 meters in thickness, others 2 meters. All walls are covered with marble.
- It is recognized that it is 3 meters in deep when we looked at it.
- It is considered that poor soil structure accounts for this inclination.